Insulin: What is insulin, Insulin administration with needles, pumps and pens.

Lack of insulin or your body being unable to produce enough insulin, might cost your life.
An hormone controlling the amount of glucose circulation in your bloodstream at any given time, turning food into energy after being created and released by your pancreas is Insulin.
It also does helps store glucose in your:
– muscles
– fats
– and liver

It also regulates your body’s metabolism in:
– protein
– fats
– and carbohydrates

Improper insulin function in your body, makes it hard for your body to reserve glucose in your liver and muscles neither generating any fat. Instead it generates keto-acids which triggers diabetes-ketoacidosis in case its levels apparently grows too high.
Every time we eat food, our glucose levels rises.Β  For later use, the risen levels of glucose must then be turned into energy “by insulin application from our pancreas.” For people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, they experience high sugar levels or low sugar levels due to their pancreatic default of not producing enough insulin.

You can be prescribed diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (or juvenile diabetes), if your body doesn’t make enough insulin or totally no insulin. For type 2 diagnosis, is when there is improper insulin usage by your body. Through estimates given with type 1 diabetes type, approximately half of the diagnosed people, got it at adulthood.

People with type 2 diabetes, can avoid or stave off the use of insulin through:
– healthier eating habits adoption.
– use of additional prescribed treatments/medications.
– Frequently carrying out exercise/physical activities.
– Losing weight.
However, on the other hand, type 1 diabetes patients crave for insulin intake or injections for their lives.

Insulin Types:

They are characterized by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) on how fast they work. However, our bodies being different, they react differently to any sort of medication. So expect variations and deviations in time factor for the medication to fully reach your bloodstream and start working.

Definitions on insulin terms:

Duration – A continuous process of lowering blood glucose levels over a length of time is known as “duration.”
Onset – After insulin hits your bloodstream, it takes some time for the blood glucose to get lowered which is known as “onset.”
Peak – The effective time attained or reached for lowering your blood glucose levels is known as “peak.”

The following forms types of insulin:

Rapid-acting insulin: – after injection it takes approximately 15 minutes to quickly affect the blood glucose. Its peak is commonly gained in an hour of time then persists or lasts for few more hours.
Short acting insulin: – Stays effective for 3 to 6 hours acquiring its peak at first 2 to 3 hours, having reached your bloodstream within 30 minutes of time.
Intermediate-acting insulin: – Containing NPH-insulin (meaning Neutral-Protamine-Hagedorn in full) that helps in the bloodstream glucose control. It takes 10 to 12 hours glucose controlΒ  under the action of protamine (protein type that slows the insulin processing activity/action.)
Long-acting insulin: – it’s effective can extend up to 24 hours after entering bloodstream in 1 to 2 hours. Its having no pronounced peak, makes an advantage as it somehow typically works like the normal pancreatic insulin.
Premixed/combination insulin: – This is either rapid acting or short-acting insulin under combination of intermediate-acting-insulin to form a one mix or a mixture. This gives an advantageous room of a one container drawing insulin other than from many bottles.

Insulin administration/how do you take insulin?
Injection self-admiration by use of a syringe, is used by many Diabetes affected people.
The syringe is graduated outside showing the amount of medication in the needle.
We have different varieties of syringes that can be chosen from. With the doctor’s help, you are able to get the right syringes that suits you.

Injecting insulin – How to choose the right syringe?

  • In case your highest dose gets near to the syringe maximum capacity, consider purchasing a new size syringe to fit your newly daily marked dose.
  • If you get your dosage measured in half units, choose the appropriate syringe with the right measurements.
  • If you happen to purchase new syringes in unfamiliar places while traveling, try to match the correct size of the purchased syringe with  your insulin strength.

Different sizes of insulin administering syringes, come with a number of different sizes needles.
Shorter needles gives less sting experience while injecting. However, due to their shallow injections, the time taken for insulin to become effective or start working in the body, is prolonged. By the help of your doctor, you can find the one that best suits you.

How to administer insulin without a syringe.

Other methods of insulin administration include:

Insulin pens:
– Refrigeration not needed at all.
– They resemble large writing pens.
– Much more conveniently prefilled.
– Helps in under and overdose prevention.
– Its reliability advantageous is higher than syringes.

Insulin pumps:
– Glucose super monitors.
– Under skin infiltrated/implanted with a thin tube extension. 
– Insulin delivery in small proportions daily in the course of the day.
– Before/every meal, insulin discharge.
– They form about 60 percent of usage by US diabetic patients.
– Motorized/Computerized

Jet-injection devices:
If you hate needles or you can’t withstand the sting of a needle, this is an advantageous option to switch on to. Here, insulin is pushed through to the body by placing it on your skin and pressing the button for the device to excrete insulin into your blood-stream.

In-halable insulin: 
– More cost prohibitive than other insulin types
– Short-acting.
– After 2014 established approval, they comes in a pre-measured inhaler
– No-Insurance.

Insulin dosing is normally based on blood glucose levels individual monitoring, apart from insulin pumps which exhibits their own monitors.
Insulin levels can be retrieved and checked by monitoring devices or finger pricks check outs.

Storing Insulin in the right way.

– Keep and monitor at room temperature to avoid “going bad.”
– Don’t store for more than one month.
– Insulin types vary on the expiry dates according to the type.
– Have enough supply of about 2-3 weeks stored in the refrigerator.
– Don’t expose it to sunlight or freezer (don’t expose it to heat or cold).

Insulin alternative medication:
Metformin pills – stops liver sugar production.
Glitazones pills – bloodstream sugar removal.
Sufonylureas and glinides pills – pancreas insulin release booster.
Starch-blockers pills – gentle starch absorption by making it slow.
Amvlin Analogs and Incretin Therapies – injections and pills that helps in reduction of liver sugar production and gives way to a slower food absorption.
SGLT2 inhibitors pills – reabsorption of glucose prevention and taken before meals.

However, with the following being done or put in practice, you can reduce glucose levels.

Have limited carbohydrates in your diet as illustrated by your doctor on diabetic-safe-diet.
Use the Mediterranean or DASH diet that have proven facts in stabilizing blood sugar levels.

Get enough sleep:
Secretion of hormone cortisol which causes greater insulin resistance due to its inflammatory condition, can be increased by lack of enough sleep.
Whether you have diabetes or not, your glucose levels tend to rise up when your sleep is disrupted or when you get deprived of sleep. This fact was generated and made clear by Endocrinologist- Al-Powers MD of University of Vanderbilt.

Exercise regularly:
During muscles contraction while exercising your body, glucose is easily absorbed and turned into energy. It also increases insulin sensitivity leading to efficient use of the available insulin by the muscles.

Insulin shortcomings now have led to unaffordability whereby, without insurance comprehensive, a box of rapid-acting insulin goes for $400. This is becoming an enormous problem as elaborated by Dr. Zilbermint.
Insulin ration has become a rising factor and issue among the patients due to consistent insulin rising costs among the dealers.
Testing strips too have led to a great issue giving way to the rise of insulin black market which is illegal act but still happening as illustrated by Dr. Zilbermint.

USA insulin percentage usage:

People using insulin in USA amount roughly to 7.4 million. That is:
24% goes to diabetes affected people living below poverty line.
20% covers the black people with diabetes.
17% goes to latinx people with diabetes infection.
14% covers the white people with diabetes infection.

Rationing or running out of insulin can lead to severe complications.
Lack of enough insulin to regulate your blood sugar can erupt into ketoacidosis. Which is an emergency condition that causes your body to break down fats for energy under insulin absence. If this happens, it can lead to swelling of your brain causing body shock under the influence of ketones (dangerous accumulations of acids).

Ketoacidosis symptoms include:

– Dry mouth
– Frequent urination.
– High sugar levels in the blood.
– Dry skin.
– Flushed skin.
– Vomiting
– Difficulty breathing.
– Thirst.
– Fatigue.
-“Ketones” found in high levels in the urine.
– Acetone or fruity odor on your breath.
– Acting confused as if “drunk” when sober.
– Stomach pain.
– Nausea.

The symptoms covered by DKA on Type 1 diabetes are 20% and should be managed as an emergency case by getting to hospital as soon as possible to save life. By doing so, you will avoid the life-threatening situation which could cost you a lot.
Use of too much insulin that cause your blood sugar to get very low ( known as “hyperglycemia or insulin shock,”) is another complication facing diabetics. This can lead to or cause:
– Seizures.
– Heart attacks.
– Coma.

Above all, always follow your doctor’s prescription and monitor your own blood sugar to avoid initiating more complications.


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